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BIBLE STUDY: Golgotha - The Place Of Goliath's Skull And The Death Of Christ

Imagine, if YOU could travel back in time to Passover Day, 31 A.D.! Imagine, if YOU could personally witness the Mocking and the Taunting of Jesus Christ, as He stumbled through the streets, to the place of His Public Execution! Imagine, YOU being an Eyewitness to EVERYTHING that was Said, and Done, the morning after Jesus ate His Last Supper with His Disciples, in the Upper Room; and broke bread as His Body, gave wine as His Blood, and Washed His Disciples’ feet – Establishing The New Testament Passover in His Church forever (John 13:12-17)! If YOU could actually Witness, as Jesus Christ’s Disciples did - The Crucifixion of The Lamb of God; WHAT WOULD YOU REPORT BACK? WHAT WOULD YOU WRITE DOWN? WHAT WOULD YOU PASS ON to your children, and future generations, so as to Preserve History, and to Prepare Humanity - for The Future Return of The Son of Man?

Let us open up our Bibles today, and go Back in Time! Let us READ, and DISCOVER, and PROVE - These Remarkable TRUTHs for ourselves; from Actual EYEWITNESS accounts of those who were there!!!

Instructions: One Nation Under God Ministries ( publishes and distributes weekly Bible Studies, worldwide – free of charge, to anyone who requests them, in both printed and electronic formats. Our Studies are intended to be a simple and fun way to learn the Scriptures, and are very easy to follow! We adhere to Jesus Christ’s Biblical instructions to teach and feed the flock of God portions of meat in due season, on weekly Sabbaths, and on the seven annual Holy Days throughout each calendar year (Luke 12:42 / Isaiah 28:9-10 / Matthew 13:52). Using both the Old and New Testaments, our Bible Studies are designed to present a premise, make a statement, or ask a question – followed by one or more Scriptural references. Just look up and read from your Bible the Scriptures listed. Comments following questions elaborate on the Scriptures you just read. Pray always before beginning any study of God’s Word, asking God to open both your eyes and your mind to His Truth; then Prove everything you read, is in fact the Truth, by comparing it to The Word of God (1 Thessalonians 5:21 / 2 Timothy 3:15-17). Then use the Biblical System of Checks and Balances, and SEE if both Jesus Christ, and the First Century Church of God Apostles – also Did, Said, and Taught these SAME THINGS (Galatians 1:1-12, 5:25 / 1 Peter 2:21, 25 / 1 John 2:3-6)! That’s all there is to it! Our Bible Studies are based on the King James Version, unless otherwise stated. We will be praying for your eyes to “see” (Matthew 13:11-17); and we are always available to answer any of your questions! Be Blessed, in Jesus’ Name! - One Nation Under God Ministries (

Deuteronomy 29:22-29

“So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which The LORD hath laid upon it; And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which The LORD overthrew in His Anger, and in His Wrath: Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath The LORD done thus unto this land? What meaneth the heat of This Great Anger? Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken The Covenant of The LORD God of their fathers, which He Made with them when He brought them forth out of the land of Egypt: For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom He had NOT given unto them: And The Anger of The LORD was Kindled Against this land, to bring upon it all the curses that are Written in This Book: And The LORD Rooted Them Out of their land In Anger, and In Wrath, and In Great Indignation, and Cast Them into another land, as it is this day!!!”

“The Secret Things belong unto The LORD our God: but those things which are Revealed, belong unto us, and to our children, for ever, that we may DO ALL The Words of This Law” (Deuteronomy 29:22-29)!!!

The Jewish Sin of The Crucifixion of Christ (John 19:11), and the Total Destruction of Jerusalem:

“His Blood Be Upon Us, And On Our Children!!!” (Matthew 27:25). Do NOT Ever Forget, that God wiped Jerusalem off the face of the earth, in 70 A.D., with the exception of Only ONE Structure; because of the Crucifixion of His Son, by the Jews in 31 A.D. (John 19:12-15 / Matthew 27:19-31). Every single manmade structure of wood was burned; and every single stone or brick building was COMPLETELY dismantled, overturned, and carried away, from the top of the Mount of Olives – in every direction – for 10 miles; EXCEPT for the Old Roman Fort!!! EVERYTHING you can see in the city of Jerusalem today, is newer than 70 A.D. – EXCEPT the Wailing Wall, and the foundational stones of that Old Fort!!!

Question: What will happen to Judah and Jerusalem just before Christ returns (Luke 21:20-24)? The modern English of the Moffatt translation may be a bit easier to understand here: "For Sore Anguish will come upon the land, and Wrath on this people!" Let’s also visit the parallel account in Matthew 24:15-20. Do you see God showing you a time of Great Tribulation coming upon the whole world (Matthew 24:21 / Zechariah 14:1-5)?

What would happen if Jesus did not return and intervene in the affairs of men (Matthew 24:22)?

Do you see how God is shortly going to make it impossible for anyone NOT to believe in God? They will either Praise Him or Curse Him, as these days approach! And ONLY those who are IN The Body of Christ will be SPARED; AND ONLY those who, within The Body, are FOLLOWING Christ’s Instructions (Psalm 91:1-16 / Luke 21:34-38 / Zechariah 14:6-15)!!! Let Him that Readeth UNDERSTAND!!!          

Do YOU Believe The Words Of Jesus Over Your History Books? I DO!!!

The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is NOT the remains of the Ancient Jewish Temple! If it is, then Jesus Christ is a Liar; and that CANNOT possibly happen!!!

"And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and His disciples came to Him for to shew Him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said unto them, 'See ye not all these things? Verily I say unto you, There shall NOT be left here ONE STONE UPON ANOTHER, that shall not be thrown down!!!'" (Matthew 24:1-2).

The Wailing Wall is the remains of Antonia Fortress, which was a military barracks in the time of Christ, and was Pontius Pilot's Headquarters, located next to, and NORTH of the Jewish Temple!

The Roman Fort, built over the old Hasmonean Baris (a citadel constructed north of Jerusalem's Temple Mount, during the Hasmonean period); was built by Herod the Great, and named for his patron, Mark Antony! A pre 31 B.C. date is certain for the Fort as Mark Anthony was defeated by Octavius at the sea battle of Actium on September 2, 31 B.C.


The leaders of the modern Jewish State known today as Israel, DO Understand This; otherwise they would NOT have given the site of the Dome, to the Arabs!!! However, keeping this knowledge hidden from the Arabs, appeases them in a false victory; and serves to bring in LOTS and LOTS of tourist dollars too! :o)


0n Monday, May 22, 2017, President Donald Trump became the first U.S. President to visit the Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall, located on the Westside of The Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. During his brief visit, President Trump, wearing a yarmulke, put his hand against one of the most sacred sites in Judaism; then placed what appeared to be a written prayer or note between its stones - as has become the modern day custom at the Wailing Wall.

Jerusalem is a city that has been fought over 16 times, it has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked in major offensives 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times so far! The Bible predicts there is more to come too!!!

The Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.:

In 63 B.C., Roman General Pompey desecrated the Temple by brazenly entering the Holy of Holies to see the image of the Jewish God, and found it empty of any idols. He did not plunder the Temple furnishings or treasury; and the next day ordered the temple cleansed, and the Jewish rituals to resume! The “Abomination of Desolation” spoken of by Jesus (Matthew 24:15) is the desecration of the Temple and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman armies in 70 A.D., after the Jews rebelled. This time, the Temple was completely destroyed by the Roman legions, and not one stone was left on another, as Jesus prophesied (Matthew 24:2 / Luke 19:43-44). But Jesus intended yet another fulfilment of Daniel’s prophecy in the time of the end!

The Destruction of The Temple – The Eyewitness Accounts of Josephus and Titus Agree With Jesus!!!

Let’s review some background on the Dome of the Rock, as it is today; and the Mount of Olives of yesteryear – when Jesus walked this earth, in the flesh.

Titus Flavius Josephus (37100 A.D.), was born Joseph Ben Matityahu, and was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem (which was at that time part of Roman Judea). His father was of priestly descent, and his mother claimed royal ancestry.

Josephus initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 A.D. to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed that the Jewish Messianic prophecies had initiated the First Roman-Jewish War, and made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome! In response, Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and as his Jewish Hebrew interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 A.D., he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.

Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side, and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., which resulted (when the Jewish revolt did not surrender) in the city's destruction; and in the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple (the Second Temple). See Matthew 24:1-2.

Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century A.D., and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (75 A.D.) and Antiquities of the Jews (94 A.D.). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation (66–70 A.D.). The Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world, from a Jewish perspective, for an ostensibly Roman audience. These works now provide valuable insight into first century Judaism, and of course, the background of Early Christianity that we will be looking at today!

Josephus describes Antonia's fortress as pictured above (on page 5 of our Golgatha Bible Study Josephus' dimensions of the fort are: 115 m from East to West, Western side 35 m and Eastern side 42 m, with four towers. The rock on which the fortress was built was 50 cubits high (22-31 m). The height of the fortress itself was 40 cubits (18-25 m.) and it had 4 towers, one in each corner. The height of three of the towers was 50 cubits and the fourth tower was 70 cubits: "Now, as to the tower of Antonia, it was situated at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock, of fifty cubits in height, and was on a great precipice; it was the work of king Herod, wherein he demonstrated his natural magnanimity.

(239) In the first place, the rock itself was covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that anyone who would either try to get up or to go down it, might not be able to hold his feet upon it.

(240) Next to this, and before you come to the edifice of the tower itself, there was a wall three cubits high; but within that wall all the space of the tower of Antonia itself was built upon, to the height, of forty cubits.

(241) The inward parts had the largeness and form of a palace, it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniences, such as courts, and places for bathing, and broad spaces for camps; insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities wanted, it might seem to be composed of several cities, but by its magnificence, it seemed a palace;

(242) and as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other distinct towers at its four corners; whereof the others were but fifty cubits high; whereas that which lay upon the southeast corner was seventy cubits high, that from thence the whole temple might be viewed;

(243) but on the corner where it joined to the two cloisters of the temple, it had passages down to them both, through which the guard

(244) (for there always lay in this tower a Roman legion [that would be about 6,000 soldiers with a support crew of 3-4,000 additional people]) went several ways among the cloisters, with their arms, on the Jewish festivals, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any innovations;

 (245) for the temple was a fortress that guarded the city, as was the tower of Antonia a guard to the temple; and in that tower were the guards of those three. There was also a peculiar fortress belonging to the upper city, which was Herod's palace;

(246) but for the hill Bezetha, it was divided from the tower of Antonia, as we have already told you; and as that hill on which the tower of Antonia stood, was the highest of these three, so did it adjoin to the new city, and was the only place that hindered the sight of the temple on the north.

(247) And this shall suffice at present to have spoken about the city and the walls about it, because I have proposed to myself to make a more accurate description of it elsewhere." (Josephus, Wars 5.238-247).

Then Came The Absolute and Totally Complete Destruction in 70 A.D.!!!

"It [Jerusalem with its walls] was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited" (The Jewish War VII. 1,1).

“They had cut down all the trees, that were in the country that adjoined to the city, and that for ninety stadia round about [for nearly ten miles], as I have already related. And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing. Those places that were before adorned with trees and pleasant gardens were now become a desolate country in every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor, if any one that had known the place before, and had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it notwithstanding" (The Jewish War VI. 1,1, the Whiston translation).

The Wailing Wall of today is NOT part of the original Temple!!!

President Donald Trump visited the Wailing Wall on 22 May 2017. He was the first U.S. President ever to do so; and while he was there, he placed a written prayer between the cracks of the bricks, as has become a recent custom at this location. What message is he sending by these actions? Does he know The Truth about the Temple Mount?

After A.D.70, people would have seen utter desolation in all directions. Every stone of every building and wall, in Jerusalem, was dislodged from its original position and thrown down to the ground. Josephus provides reasonable accounts of later events after the war was over to show how this complete destruction was accomplished. Much of the destruction came after the war had ceased. For six months after the war, Josephus tells us that the Tenth Legion "dug up" the ruins of the houses, buildings and walls looking for plunder. They systematically excavated beneath the foundations of the ruined buildings and houses (they had many of the Jewish captives do the work for them). They also had the whole area turned upside down looking for gold and other precious metals that became molten when the fires were raging. This caused the precious metals to melt and flow into the lower crevices of the stones. Even the foundation stones contained melted gold from the great fires that devoured Jerusalem. This plundering of every former building or wall in the municipality of Jerusalem resulted in the troops overturning (or having the remaining Jewish captives overturn for them) and displacing every stone within the city of Jerusalem!!!

This continual digging up of the city occurred over a period of several months after the war. History records that after an absence of about four months, Titus returned to Jerusalem from Antioch, and once again viewed the ruined city. Josephus records what Titus saw:

"As he came to Jerusalem in his progress [in returning from Antioch to Egypt], and compared the melancholy condition he saw it then in, with the ancient glory of the city [compared] with the greatness of its present ruins (as well as its ancient splendor). He could not but pity the destruction of the city…. Yet there was no small quantity of the riches that had been in that city still found among the ruins, a great deal of which the Romans dug up; but the greatest part was discovered by those who were captives [Jewish captives were forced by the Roman troops to dig up the stones of their own city looking for gold], and so they [the Romans] carried it away; I mean the gold and the silver, and the rest of that most precious furniture which the Jews had, and which the owners had treasured up under ground against the uncertainties of war." The Wailing Wall of today is NOT part of the original Temple!


Three Years After The War That Leveled EVERY Stone - Another Account Of The Complete Desolation of Jerusalem:

Eleazar, the Last Jewish commander at Masada, related what happened to Jerusalem, three years after the war was finished. His eyewitness account of how the Romans preserved Fort Antonia (the Haram) among the ruins of the city is remarkable, and virtually unknown today by those who visit the Holy Lands today! Remember, it was Eleazar who spoke to the 960 Jewish people who were going to commit suicide rather than fall into the hands of General Silva; who was on the verge of capturing the Fortress of Masada. Commander Eleazar lamented over the sad state of affairs that everyone present had witnessed now that the war with the Romans was over. Jerusalem was to him a disastrous spectacle of utter ruin. There was only one thing that was still standing; this was the Camp of the Romans that Titus had permitted to remain - as a monument of humiliation over the Mother City of the Jews! Eleazar acknowledged that this military encampment had been in Jerusalem before the war, and that Titus let it continue after the war! The retention of this single Camp of the Romans, according to Eleazar, was a symbol of the victory that Rome had achieved over the Jewish people. Let’s read some of his words which are recorded for all to see in The Jewish War VII. 8, 7!!!

“And where is now that great city [Jerusalem], the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified by so many walls round about, which had so many fortresses and large towers to defend it, which could hardly contain the instruments prepared for the war, and which had so many ten thousands of men to fight for it? Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inhabiting therein? It is now demolished to the very foundations, and hath nothing left but that monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those [the Romans] that hath destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins; some unfortunate old men also lie ashes upon the Temple [the Temple was then in total ruins — all of it had been burnt to ashes], and a few women are there preserved alive by the enemy, for our bitter shame and reproach."

What Eleazar saw and wrote about is an eyewitness account of the state of Jerusalem in the year A.D.73. His words are of critical importance to Followers of Christ today – that is why God has preserved them!!! Commander Eleazar wrote that the City of Jerusalem and all its Jewish fortresses had indeed been demolished "to the very foundations"!!! There was nothing left of the City or the Temple! This is exactly what Jesus prophesied would happen; and this is exactly what is going to happen AGAIN (Zechariah 14:1-2)!!!

The Jews had the Greater Sin of The Crucifixion of Christ (John 19:11), and the Total Destruction of Jerusalem was the result!!!

“His Blood Be Upon Us, And On Our Children!!!” (Matthew 27:25).

Jerusalem is a city that has been fought over 16 times, it has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked in major offensives 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times so far! The Bible predicts there is more to come too!!!

Eleazar mentions the "wholesale destruction" of the city. He said that God had "abandoned His most holy city to be burnt and razed to the ground" (The Jewish War VII. 8,6 Loeb translation). Commander Eleazar concludes his eyewitness account by stating: "I cannot but wish that we had all died before we had seen that holy city demolished by the hands of our enemies, or the foundations of our Holy Temple dug up, after so profane a manner!!!" (The Jewish War VII.8, 7).

And Jesus said unto them, ‘See ye not all these things (the Temple Complex)? Verily I Say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down!!!” (Matthew 24:2).

Now YOU Know… that the very foundation stones that comprised the Temple complex (including its walls) had been uprooted and demolished. They were then "dug up", and not even the lower courses of base stones were left in place!!! According to Eleazar, the only thing left in the Jerusalem area was a single Roman Camp (or Fortress) that still hovered (higher elevation) triumphantly over the ruins of the City and the Temple. He said that Jewish Jerusalem "hath nothing left"!!! The only thing continuing to exist was the "monument" (a single monument) preserved by Titus – “the camp of those that destroyed it [Jerusalem], which still dwells upon its ruins.”


According to Josephus, the main military establishment in Jerusalem prior to the war was Fort Antonia located to the north of the Temple (which is now the Haram esh-Sharif – or where the Dome of the Rock is today)!!! Haram was considered Roman property even before the war with the Jews began.

Because Antonia was the property of Rome, they had no reason to destroy something that already was theirs! This is where Pilate was when Jesus was brought from the Temple to appear before him! This is why Titus left Fort Antonia (the Haram esh-Sharif / the sanctuary fortress or sanctuary of strength) and its walls in tact! We can still see them today, with a golden dome built upon them!!!

The Dome of the Rock sits upon the ruins of the Old Roman Fort; The Wailing Wall is NOT the last remains of Solomon’s Temple! God’s Temple was located to the right of the wall on the photo below. 


History Will Repeat Itself, Yet Again!!!       

A short time before Christ returns, armies will once again surround Jerusalem and an “abomination” will be done on the Temple Mount. As Matthew 24:21 says, this act inaugurates the time of Great Tribulation. At that time, the saints in Jerusalem are told to flee to the mountains for safety (Matthew 24:16; Luke 21:20-21). Invading armies will again perform a blasphemous rite, and an idol will be erected in the Temple precincts, as in the former desolation. In the Old Testament, "abomination" is often synonymous with an "idol" (Daniel 11:45 / Revelation 13:11-18). So we can see here that the Beast will build a temple to himself on the Mount of Olives, after stopping the twice daily sacrifices (that have not even started yet, as of this writing) and defiling the altar; once this temple is completed, the false prophet who can call down fire from heaven, will convince the world to make an image to the beast – this image placed in the temple will have supernatural abilities to both speak and kill those who do not worship the Beast (2 Thessalonians 2:1-12)!


Please see our “King Of The North” Bible Study series for much more about the End Times Man of Perdition!

The Jews DO intend to START sacrificing on the Temple Mount again, and in OUR VERY NEAR FUTURE - so says Jesus Christ; but NOT where the Dome of the Rock is; and NOT where the Old Roman Fort -where Christ was scourged - was!!!

When the sacrifices do begin, it will be where the old temple really was!!!


That what MOST people believe to be the location, and the Remains, of the Old Jewish Temple – is NOT!!! Churches, the tourist industry, and the modern Nation of Israel, all continue to give this LIE life; and they teach, and re-teach it to each generation! We MUST Believe The Bible, FIRST and FOREMOST; then the history books, BUT ONLY WHEN AND IF, they agree with the Bible!!!


Let us now continue on, and SEE MORE of what the world always seems to get WRONG, about the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ!

Hopefully, you have already read our 3 Part - Passover Bible Study series; if so YOU now Know and have Proven that Jesus Christ was our Passover Lamb, and that He died on a Wednesday afternoon, on a Passover Day, and that He Rose from His Tomb on a Saturday afternoon, as our First Fruits - BEFORE sunset! Easter Sunday is a pagan LIE (1 Kings 11:1-11)!!!

Just as human tradition has led us to believe, incorrectly, that three wise men came to see Jesus when He was born (See our Feast of Trumpets Bible Study for much more on this); we have also been led to believe that Jesus was crucified in between two thieves! This IS NOT SO!!!

Our, “Why Was Christ Crucified?” Bible Study would also have Proven to YOU the 3 Reasons Christ was killed; and also that Jesus was One of FIVE people that died on a cross that day. Please go back and READ these very important Bible Studies, if you have not already done so!!!



Strangely, our Study today on the Place of Christ’s Crucifixion, would NOT be complete if we didn’t first begin with David’s Epic Battle against a Very Big Man- Goliath of Gath!!!

Let’s Read 1 Samuel 17:1-11

“Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim. And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines. And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them. And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.

NOTE: 1 Samuel 17:4 / KJV translation would put Goliath’s height at about Nine Feet, Nine Inches (SIX CUBITS AND A SPAN) – or 2.972 Meters! Jerome’s fourth century A.D. Latin translation (the Vulgate), which appears to follow the Hebrew proto-MT faithfully, likewise puts Goliath at six cubits and a span. The Vulgate gradually grew in popularity in the West and eventually became the “received text” for the Western churches, thus codifying the 9’9” giant into Western culture.

HOWEVER, the textual evidence for the variant reading of “FOUR CUBITS AND A SPAN” (Six Feet, Nine Inches) – or 2.057 Meters, IS SIGNIFICANTLY STRONGER!

The textual witnesses for the variant that cites Goliath’s height at four cubits and a span (6’9”) include:

  1. 4QSama, the oldest extant Hebrew manuscript for this text.
  2. Vaticanus, the oldest complete Greek codex of the Bible.
  3. Josephus (whom we allotted much time to above, in order to validate his historical accounts), is a non-Biblical first-century ad reference. As a first-century Jewish historian though; Josephus’ account demonstrates to us Convincingly, that Goliath’s shorter height was Well Established in the Hebrew Bible of His day!!!
  4. The Lucian Greek recension, a third-century ad witness; and
  5. Other early codices such as Alexandrinus (Commonly known as the “Septuaginta” (LXXII) or shortened “Septuagint” – a Greek translation of the Old Testament, completed no later than the mid second-century B.C. AMAZINGLY, one of the Hebrew copies of the Book of Samuel found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains text from 1 and 2 Samuel. Although parts of the text are damaged, 1 Samuel 17:3-6 is not!!! This text dates to around 50 B.C., and is The Oldest Hebrew Copy of this part of 1 Samuel; so it is Significant that it has the Shorter Height of Goliath as Four cubits and a span or Six Feet, Nine Inches (2.057 Meters)!!!

A 6’9” tall Goliath (2.057 Meters), would have been at least 20 centimeters taller than the heroes found in Iron Age Mycenaen tombs, and 30-40 centimeters taller than the average Iron Age man. This indicates that even the heroes of that time period, were only 10-15 centimeters taller than the average man; and a man 30 centimeters taller than these heroes (as Goliath was), would have been a real Post Flood Giant, on the shrinking scales of human sizes following the days of Noah! Goliath at 6’9” was almost 40 centimeters taller than the average man. King Saul needed not to have been more than 6 feet tall to be head and shoulders above all of Israel! Remember, King Saul is more concerned with Goliath’s Fighting Ability and Experience; than with Goliath’s Height (1 Samuel 17:31-40)! Neither David, nor Saul, are overly concerned about Goliath’s Height; and David having already watched Goliath in battle (1 Samuel 17:19-29), has already formulated a battle strategy to defeat him!!!

At 6”9”, Goliath of Gath, was still a Big, Man; but it was Goliath’s muscular girth, and fierceness, that dismayed most – but NOT David!!!

Let’s Continue with our text in 1 Samuel 17:5-11

“And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.

NOTE: Surviving brass shekels from this time period, contained only a fourth part of an ounce; and so 5,000 shekels of brass would weigh in at 1,250 ounces, or exactly at 78 pounds. A coat of Mail of this weight would not be unsuitable for a man of such stature and strength, as the Scriptures suggest Goliath possessed! Even if we went with the more modern, one half ounce weight to the shekel of brass; that would put Goliath’s armor coat at 156 pounds, 4 ounces.


How much weight can a Very Tall, Very Muscular Philistine Warrior carry into Battle?

(1 Samuel 17:6-11) “And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam (with a rope loop handle to help him wield it!); and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron (about 15 pounds).

NOTE: A normal spear head from this time period would have been eight inches, maybe a foot long, and weigh in at about a pound, roughly half a kilogram at most! In 1962 near Kfar Monash, a settlement in the plain of Sharon, near the Coast of Israel; a cache of early Bronze age weapons and tools were found. Among these were several Giant copper spearheads 66 cm long (26 inches) weighing 2.05 kg (4.5 lbs). These would be about the same size as Goliath’s Spear head, and if they were made of Iron instead of Copper – they would weigh in at close to the same 15 pounds as Goliath’s Spearhead!!! Also found in the 1962 dig, were 800 copper plates, 5 cm x 11 cm, (2 inches wide by 4 1/3 inches long) which may have been used for scale armor, for rather large warriors!!!

(Continuing in verse :7) “and one bearing a shield went before him. And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? Am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? Choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me!!! If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us!!! And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together!!! When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid!!!” (1 Samuel 17:7-11).

Studying the above Scriptures, critically: 78 pounds (low end) to 156 pounds (high end) for armor, and maybe another 30-40 pounds for helmet, spear, sword, and leggings (200 pounds maximum) isn’t a lot of weight, for a slow moving, but very muscular and mesomorphic, 6’9” warrior (1 Samuel 17:44).

Goliath had to lumber slowly forward; while David was very quick, agile, and nimble on his feet!

Louis (Lou) Jude Ferrigno, born in 1951, was a very popular and widely known body builder in the 1970’s through the 1990’s. He is probably best known as the star of the Incredible Hulk T.V. series, where most people got their first look at his Massive Physique! Lou, at the height of his career, was 6 feet, 5 inches tall (195.5 cm), and weighed in between 285-295 pounds (129.3-133.8 kg). His biceps were 22.5” (inches), chest 59”, waist 34”, thighs 29”. If Hollywood was going to cast someone to be Goliath in an upcoming movie, Lou Ferrigno would be my choice! Looking at photographs of Lou; it is easy to see why other men of war would fear Goliath! Add in Goliath’s documented Violent behavior, and war fighting history; and you would have a True Menace on your hands!!! At 6’5”, 295 pounds; Lou could handle a lot of battle gear. At 6’9”, and even heavier; Goliath could easily take carry his Biblical Battle Load!



How much weight can an average American Soldier, with military conditioning and strength training, carry into Battle?

While I was in the U.S. Marine Corps, and during my years as  Law Enforcement S.W.A.T. Cadre; I cannot ever recall weighing myself in my battle or entry gear, to see how much my gear, my weapons, and myself weighed. We just trained Hard, and Lifted Heavy; so we could put a 200 pounds-plus man, into lots of armor, weapons, and ammunition, and get the job done! We weren’t going to go running after anyone in a fight; but with all that gear and toys, we dominated every place we walked into!

But in 2003, Colonel Charles Dean; a military equipment expert, decided to study the weight worn of Combat Soldiers in Eastern Afghanistan – specifically that of an infantry soldier. His team joined with the 82nd Airborne Division, collecting data, and weighing more than 750 soldiers with a range of different jobs.

When soldiers headed out on foot patrols, their average load ranged from 87 pounds to 127 pounds. When they came under attack and dropped their rucksacks, most of their fighting loads still exceeded 60 pounds!!!

In his final report, Colonel Dean sounded an alarm. “If an aggressive weight loss program is not undertaken by the U.S. Army, the soldier’s combat load will continue to increase, and his physical performance will continue to be even more severely degraded!!!”

David understood, as would the later Roman Legions, what Colonel Dean would in recent times - rediscover; that lighter troops can move and fight faster – especially when using projectile based weaponry! There is a time to fight heavy and there is a time to fight light! There is a time to fight up close and personal; and there is a time to fight at a distance (Psalm 144:1-2)!!!


David Defeats Goliath In Battle (1 Samuel 17:41-54)


The Bible recounts how King Saul wanted to reward David for his victory over the Philistines. The reward had been previously stated by the king, and all the army of Israel knew what King Saul would grant to the one who defeated Goliath (1 Samuel 17:25)! Saul at this time, knew who he had sent out into battle against Goliath (verse :32,37-38); but he did not know who David’s father was to make his house and his estate – tax free – from this point forward (1 Samuel 17:55-58)


David Becomes A National Hero!!!

David keeps the Giant’s armor, and probably the sword, shield, and spear too; as trophies of war (1 Samuel 17:54)! He gives Saul the head of his enemy; but then what?

What does King Saul do with a Giant’s Head, after you receive it?

The Place Of The Skull?


“The Place of The Skull” is a very strange natural rock formation with caves carved into it. It also has a very interesting history! The above photograph is from the turn of the century, before much of the presently existing structures were built. Below, is how it looks today!


Calvary Today:

The location of Jesus Christ’s Crucifixion is known today as both Calvary (skull) and Golgotha (The Place of The Skull).

Not only Did David bury the Philistine’s head, outside the city, “Goliath of Gath”, “Gol- Gath”, “Golgatha”; which is CALLED (Pay CLOSE ATTENTION to the WORDS John uses in John 19:17) “The Place of The Skull”, which is called in Hebrew “Golgatha”!!! The Very Place ACTUALLY Resembles a Giant Human Skull (See the photos above)!!! Everyone in Jerusalem, at that time, knew this place was where David placed Goliath’s Head!!!

  1. The Late Latin word, Calvāria, where we get our modern word, Calvary from; literally means skull.
  2. The Greek word, κρανίον (kran-ee-on), translated as Cranium, means skull, or the head of a skeletal frame. Cranium, is commonly used in English today, as a medical term for skull. Golgatha in Greek means place of The Skull!
  3. The Modern Hebrew word, Gulgolet , means Skull (Poll) It is derived from the English word Golgotha, meaning “The Place of The Skull” (or in Hebrew “Gulgolth”).
  4. The Aramaic word, Gulgaltha, has the same meaning as the Hebrew word “Gulgoleth” above (Place of The Skull).

It seems everybody, in the old days, knew where the Big, Giant, Head was! Now to teach this truth to today’s generation!!!

Counting Polls or Skulls?

Numbers 1:2, 1:18 / 1 Chronicles 23:3, 24 / 2 Kings 9:35

As you can see from the above scriptures, golgolet is used in the context of taking a census, or “a poll” by counting the "heads" or "skulls" of the individuals over age twenty. By the time the first century rolled along, Golgolet was called Golgotha in Greek and became associated with an actual place where they counted people (or skulls – polls), as they entered Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives! In first-century Jesusalem, that place was “The Place of The Skull”!

Golgotha was on, and bordered one of the major roads that led into Jerusalem. This place was a bottleneck for people coming into the city from the east, and so was a station point for the "counting of the skulls," or the "lifting up of the heads." It is also why the Romans crucified criminals at this location, to deter any who were coming into the city with nefarious intentions that this would be their destiny. This is another reason why it was called Golgotha; and this is why the Romans would write the Criminal charges, on the cross of a condemned man – not just for Jesus; BUT FOR ALL THAT HUNG ON THE CROSS – TO DETER THAT CRIME IN THE FUTURE (John 19:17-22)!!!

Think about the incredible significance of this fact: Jesus Christ came, and by sacrificing Himself for all Israel, paid the ransom for us according to The Law! But He also died on the very spot where the Romans "counted the skulls" for their census of anyone coming into Jerusalem. Anyone who desired to come to the Holy Mountain would first have to go through the outer gate, Golgotha (Jesus), and be counted as His - by accepting the ransom (His Blood) that was paid for their entrance. Indeed, Jesus, Himself Said, "No man comes to The Father except through Me!!!" (John 14:6, 10:1-18). 

Let us look at yet Another Reason Why was Jesus crucified on a hill known as The Place of The Skull (Goliath of Gath / Gol Gath / Golgatha)!!!

In Genesis 3:15 we have the first prophecy of the coming of the Lord Jesus to be the Savior of mankind: “And I will put hostility between you [Satan] and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he shall crush your head, and you shall bruise his heel.” The crushing of Satan’s head is our first clue as to why Jesus was crucified on Calvary, The Place of The Skull. Moses prophetically writes that there will come a time when the future seed of the woman will crush the head of the serpent!!!

After David slays Goliath, he cuts his head off, and brings it to Jerusalem. Victors would often decapitate their foe and then set them on a hill or a site that would display victory for all to see. Why not on – and then in - The Hill that Already looks like a Skull; and is a narrow bottle neck road, into the city? Now The Skull Look-A-Like Rock, can be The Place, not of any skull; But of THE Giant’s Skull!!!

The fact that David brought Goliath’s head to Jerusalem is quite astonishing since Jerusalem at this time was inhabited by David’s enemies, the Jebusites. The question is, where did David bring the head of Goliath? The Scripture doesn’t tell us but I don’t think it would be going too far out on a limb, to suggest that the giant’s skull, was buried on Calvary!!!

Fulfilling Scripture!!!

The REAL Significance of Jesus being Crucified on Calvary, The Place of The Skull, was to show His VICTORY over His enemy, Satan (Genesis 3:15)!!! As the nail would have been driven through the heels of the one crucified, the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 was being partially fulfilled! Satan would bruise His (Jesus Christ’s) HEEL (The Nails DID NOT go through the top of Christ’s feet as we see in pagan church idols of Christ, and are brainwashed into believing in the movies)!!! Jesus had Nails Hammered Through His Ankles!!!

The remainder of the prophecy was fulfilled as Jesus (The Son of David) was lifted above the ground (at The Place of The Skull) - CRUSHING the head of Satan; just as David defeated the enemy of Israel, by cutting off his head!!! Jesus was literally in a position over His enemies, over the Giants of Evil!!!


The Times of Israel:

In a 26 March 2012 article, written by Matti Friedman, there was a picture of an interesting bone and a very big nail!


The Remains of a Crucifixion Victim survives in a stone box - with its impaling Nail intact! An ossuary at the Israel Museum contains the sole physical evidence ever found for the Roman practice of execution on the cross!



It is interesting to note, that so far as I could determine; in all of archaeology, there is NO other evidence, no remains, no physical proof of a person’s remains – who had been crucified, anywhere! No evidence of the punishment: no existing crosses, and no perforated skeletons, are found anywhere in the world – until recently. The one exception: a stone box of Yehohanan’s remains was discovered in the 1970’s.

After Yehohanan’s body was removed from the cross, it would have been laid out in a burial cave. After the flesh had decomposed a year or so later, leaving only the skeleton, his bones were gathered in a simple stone box, an ossuary; in keeping with the Jewish practice of that time. Today, the box is displayed in a gallery at the Israel Museum alongside other artifacts from the period of Roman rule in Judea.

His name is inscribed in simple letters on one side: Yehohanan, son of Hagakol. (Some scholars, interpreting the letters differently, believe the second name is Hezkil.)

Inside the box, archaeologists found a heel bone with an iron stake driven through it, indicating that the occupant of the ossuary had been nailed to a cross! Proof at last!!!


The position of the stake was evidence of a crucifixion technique that had not previously been known, according to museum curator David Mevorah. In the image of crucifixion made famous by Christian iconography, Jesus is pictured with both feet nailed to the front of the vertical beam of the cross. But this man’s feet had been affixed to the sides of the beam with nails hammered separately through each heel! Now Genesis 3:15 makes much MORE sense; doesn’t it? Praise God!!!

The bones of Yehohanan’s hands showed no sign of wounds, indicating that

  1. they had been tied, rather than nailed, to the horizontal bar; or
  2. they had been nailed through, just below the wrists, on the forearms; as was Jesus Christ!


The surprising lack of similar physical evidence for crucifixion elsewhere, Mevorah said, may be due to beliefs that crucifixion nails had magic properties. People in the ancient world, he said, “might have collected the nails as amulets.”

Yehohanan was not alone in his ossuary: Inside, archaeologists found a second skeleton, this one belonging to a child aged three or four. They also noticed that the side of the ossuary bore a second, fainter inscription near the first. Curiously, this one also read “Yehohanan.”

After the discovery of the ossuary in the 1970s, the famous Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin suggested that the faint inscription referred to the crucified man and the second inscription — Yehohanan, son of Hagakol — to his son.

“Hagakol” is not a name familiar to scholars, and this theory suggested it was not a name at all. Instead, Yadin thought, having looked at similar words in use at the time, it might have meant “crucified.” The inscription thus read: Yehohanan, son of the Crucified One.

The child Yehohanan, in this version of events, died not long after the elder Yehohanan’s execution, and his bones were added to those of his father in the unadorned stone ossuary kept in the family’s burial cave north of the walled city.

How Was Jesus Christ Crucified?

Jesus Said He Would be Crucified: (Matthew 26:2);but what type of Crucifixion did Christ endure?

  1. Was He nailed to a tree, or tied to a tree?
  2. Was He nailed to a post, or tied to a post?
  3. Was He nailed to a Cross; and / or tied to a Cross?
  4. What kind of Crosses did the Romans use?
  5. Was the Cross of Christ a traditional Cross, and X Cross, a T Cross, or just a plain post of tree, with no cross piece at all?


The word commonly translated as 'crucified' is the Greek word “stauroo” which is impalement on a stake or pole. Outside of the Biblical use of that word; it is still used today to mean putting up a fence or a pole! Actually, that term is translated as 'crucified' at least 46 times in the New Testament. So, Does crucified mean to impale?

History is full of examples of people being impaled on posts; and yes, the Romans were known to do this too. But the Bible is clear; Jesus was Crucified: nailed to a Cross – NOT Impaled!!! So “stauroo” can and does also mean to “Hang on a tree” or “hang on a post”!!!


Here is an old example of impaling. The victims were usually impaled alive on the stake or pike; then left to rot and their bodies to decay, as warnings to those who opposed the current despot, dictator or king! Christ was NOT Impaled!

Did the Romans Often Use Crosses? 

The Romans did use several types of crosses as part of their capital punishment. In Crucifixions, what they tended to use was a tree or pole. Not something that looks like the type of crosses in most churches today (neatly trimmed and finished timbers; assembled and carried together by the victim). (Samuelsson, p. 338).

Usually, in places where multiple crucifixions would take place, the Romans would use large posts, or tree trunks, as their post or stake; then they would nail the condemned to a “Cross” or “cross piece” – arm to arm, and hoist them up the post or tree to die! In this way, they could have a sort of production line, or a conveyor of death plant, that was Very Efficient in killing large groups and numbers of people. As we will show you today from historical records, this was the same mindset that Adolph Hitler and the Nazis adopted during World War II.


The Road to Rome lined with Crosses. Here the condemned would be tied or nailed to a “cross” (in reality and in practice - a cross beam), then hoisted up by rope and pulley system to die! Once the victim was dead, they would lower and remove one body and cross piece; then quickly and efficiently hoist up another! Mass Executions were perfected by Rome, and other ancient cultures, in this manner; and revolts quickly quelled!!!

Although there are references to crucifixions hundreds of years before the Romans, these sometimes can also refer to other forms of impalement, or cases where offenders were nailed to trees and other frames, where they were left to die!


Here is an old illustration of someone nailed to a “tree” or pole. In many of these instances, additional spikes or nails were used, sometimes through the body to help hold a person onto their pole, tree, or cross!

Let’s Recap:

The Greek word translated “cross” is stauros, meaning “a pole” or “a cross” used as an instrument of capital punishment. The Greek word “stauroo”, which is translated “crucify” means “to be attached to a pole or cross.” Outside of the Bible, the same verb was also used in the context of putting up a fence with stakes.

In Latin word "crux" which is generally translated as "cross", and originally had an even less specific meaning, referring to any object on which victims were impaled or hanged. So, even the Latin word did not have to mean a cross. Crosses, as seen in Greco-Roman churches, were not as common of a capital punishment device as many seem to think. Knowing all this, let us now ask:

"Was Jesus crucified on a cross, pole, or stake?"

The cross is arguably the most beloved symbol in all of Christianity. It adorns our churches and cathedrals, our jewelry, our books and music, and is used in numerous marketing logos. The empty cross symbolizes the work performed there by our Savior who went to death willingly to pay the penalty for our sins. Among Jesus’ last words before He died were “It is finished” (John 19:30). The Law was fulfilled, the Messianic prophecies pertaining to His first advent were accomplished, and redemption was complete. It is no wonder that the cross has come to symbolize all that is the greatest story ever told—the story of the sacrificial death of Christ (John 1:29).

The Romans were not picky in regards to how they would crucify people. Historically, we know the Romans crucified people on crosses, poles, stakes, upside-down crosses, X-shaped crosses (such as the apostle Andrew is said to have been martyred on), walls, roofs, etc. Jesus could have been crucified on any of these objects, and it would not have affected the perfection or sufficiency of His sacrifice. THE BIBLE, HISTORY, JESUS CHRIST, AND OTHER EYEWITNESSES – However, All DO answer the above question for us: "Was Jesus crucified on a cross, pole, or stake?"

Hands, Wrists, Forearms, Ankles, or Feet? Where Do I Hammer The Nails?

  • That’s a question a Roman soldier would never have had to ask. They KNEW how to Crucify people!!!

“For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced My Hands and My Feet!!!” (Psalm 22:16) – Translated from the Ancient Hebrew.

In the above Scripture, the specific word for hands and feet were used, but let’s remember Genesis 3:15! Satan must bruise Christ’s heel (NOT Foot) to fulfill prophecy! So there is some latitude here in our piecing this puzzle together!

If someone chopped you in the wrist, with an ax, severing your hand; you wouldn’t say, “They cut off my wrist!” You would say, “They cut off my hand!” Right? The same would be true if they took a sword and cut through your forearm. Again, they would have cut off your hand! Outside of an anatomy class, or a medical diagnosis; the Bible can use general terms to define specific actions!

Think back to our previous example of the only documented Crucifixion remains yet discovered. Yehohanan had his ankles nailed to his cross, not exactly his feet. But we could say truthfully, that the Romans did nail his feet to the cross; being general in terminology about a specific action!

Remember in the Greek language of the time; forearms, and wrists were included broadly in the term “hands”. The Greek word “cheir” can refer to the hand and / or the wrist. The Latin Vulgate uses the word “manus” (Luke 24:40), specifically referring to hands, as of the second century forward. However, the Vulgate was translated from the Greek, which originally used “cheir” (Hand or Wrist), in its place.

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Bible Study GOLGOTHA The Place Of The Skull Part One 14 April 2018.pdf2.87 MB